Political Ideals, Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell

Political Ideals

81 printed pages
Five essays: Political Ideals; Capitalism and the Wage System; Pitfalls in Socialism; Individual Liberty and Public Control; National Independence and Internationalism.
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We see that men's political dealings with one another are based on wholly wrong ideals, and can only be saved by quite different ideals from continuing to be a source of suffering, devastation, and sin.
It is a sad evidence of the weariness mankind has suffered from excessive toil that his heavens have usually been places where nothing ever happened or changed. Fatigue produces the illusion that only rest is needed for happiness; but when men have rested for a time, boredom drives them to renewed activity. For this reason, a happy life must be one in which there is activity. If it is also to be a useful life, the activity ought to be as far as possible creative, not merely predatory or defensive

Itu adalah sedih bukti kelelahan manusia telah menderita dari kerja keras yang berlebihan bahwa langit biasanya telah memiliki tempat-tempat di mana tidak ada yang pernah terjadi atau berubah. Kelelahan menghasilkan ilusi yang hanya sisanya yang dibutuhkan untuk kebahagiaan, tetapi ketika orang-orang telah beristirahat untuk sementara waktu, kebosanan mendorong mereka untuk aktivitas baru. Untuk alasan ini, hidup bahagia harus menjadi salah satu di mana ada aktivitas. Jika hal ini juga akan berguna kehidupan, aktivitas harus sejauh mungkin kreatif, tidak hanya predator atau defensif

punishes originality and starves imagination from the moment of first going to school down to the time of death and burial. The whole spirit in which education is conducted needs to be changed, in order that children may be encouraged to think and feel for themselves, not to acquiesce passively in the thoughts and feelings of others. It is not rewards after the event that will produce initiative, but a certain mental atmosphere. There have been times when such an atmosphere existed: the great days of Greece, and Elizabethan England, may serve as examples. But in our own day the tyranny of vast machine-like organizations, governed from
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