Reliable methods for estimating the cost of a radioactive waste disposal programme are crucial to ensure that the necessary funding for completing the disposal programme is available. Estimating the cost for disposal is, however, a challenging and complex task. Disposal programmes themselves are complex and long term undertakings, and conditions can be expected to change significantly over the time span during which a disposal programme is developed and implemented. This publication provides Member States with information on developing cost estimates for a disposal programme and establishing funding mechanisms. It will help readers in becoming informed clients by familiarizing themselves with the approaches and complexities in cost estimates and funding mechanisms for disposal. The publication is applicable to all waste categories and both near surface and geological disposal. It contains relevant examples and case studies from national programmes. The cost figures are intended to give an indication of the possible cost of certain parts or aspects of the disposal programme rather than to compare different disposal programmes’ costs.