Academic standards call for increased rigor, but simply raising complexity is not enough. Students need to be able to understand learning goals, embedded in performance scales, which include application of knowledge. They should even be capable of generating their own learning scales. In turn, teachers must become adept at providing rigorous learning goals and planning and scaffolding instruction to meet students’ needs. Creating & Using Learning Targets & Performance Scales: How Teachers Make Better Instructional Decisions explores explicit techniques for mastering this crucial strategy of instructional practice. It includes:• Explicit steps for implementation• Recommendations for monitoring students’ ability to understand learning goals• Adaptations for students who struggle, have special needs, or excel in learning• Examples and nonexamples from classroom practice• Common mistakes and ways to avoid themThe Essentials for Achieving Rigor series of instructional guides helps educators become highly skilled at implementing, monitoring, and adapting instruction. Put it to practical use immediately, adopting day-to-day examples as models for application in your own classroom.