Pacific state-owned enterprises (SOEs) are often formed to increase service delivery effectiveness and accountability. However, historical and financial indicators show that long-term government ownership of SOEs often result in outcomes counter to these goals. Weak governance and regulatory frameworks make it difficult for SOEs to operate on strict commercial principles over the long term. This fifth study of SOE performance in the Pacific emphasizes political commitment to reform as a key driver for commercial results, as demonstrated by the experience of each of the countries benchmarked. This report was produced by the Pacific Private Sector Development Initiative, a regional technical assistance facility cofinanced by ADB, the Government of Australia, and the Government of New Zealand.