This book argues that a sense of affinity for land and space constitutes the foundation of human agency and underlies all social activity of human beings from a personal level to family, nation, region, and the world. Identities, to which the process of regionalism is intimately tied, have a close connection to ancestral land. Land, or space, is protected by social laws, formal and informal instruments of power against an intrusion by another identity.The author argues that human society is divided into two identity groups, namely, a conservative and a liberal identity. Framing the argument in terms of the identity duality advances the present body of knowledge and understanding of conflict and human society. The author seeks to explain the dualism in human nature and the occurrence of wars in human society.