It is through images that we understand the form and function of material objects, from the fundamental particles that are the constituents of matter to galaxies that are the constituents of the Universe. Imaging must be thought of in a flexible way as varying from just the detection of objects — a blip on a screen representing an aircraft or a vapour trail representing the passage of an exotic particle — to displaying the fine detail in the eye of an insect or the arrangement of atoms within or on the surface of a solid. The range of imaging tools, both in the type of wave phenomena used and in the devices that utilize them, is vast.
This book will illustrate this range, with wave phenomena covering the entire electromagnetic spectrum and ultrasound, and devices that vary from those that just detect the presence of objects to those that image objects in exquisite detail. The word ‘fundamentals’ in the title has meaning for this book. There will be no attempt to delve into the fine technical details of the construction of specific devices but rather the book aims to give an understanding of the principles behind the imaging process and a general account of how those principles are utilized.
Contents:The Human Visual System:The Optical SystemThe PhotoreceptorsThe Way that Nerve Cells Operate and CommunicateThe Neural Network of the EyeThe Visual CortexThe Evolution of the Eye:Plants and LightDifferent Forms of EyeThe Evolution of the Vertebrate EyeWaves and Image Formation:What is Light?Huygens' WaveletsReflection and RefractionStereoscopyHolographySeeing Small Objects:Resolution of the Visual SystemSimple Microscope — the Magnifying GlassThe Compound MicroscopePhase-Contrast MicroscopyElectron MicroscopyPhotography and the Recording of Images:The Origins of the CameraRecording and Storing Monochrome ImagesThe Beginning of Colour PhotographyModern Colour PhotographyThe Basic Construction of a CameraDigital CamerasDetecting and Imaging with Infrared Radiation:The Radiation from Hot BodiesThe Detection of Infrared RadiationInfrared ImagingRadar:The Origin of RadarDetermining the DistanceThe Basic Requirements of a Radar SystemGenerators of Radio Frequency RadiationTransmitting the PulsesReception and PresentationDoppler RadarSynthetic Aperture RadarOther Radar ApplicationsImaging the Universe with Visible and Near-Visible Radiation:Optical TelescopesRefracting TelescopesReflecting TelescopesInfrared AstronomyAdaptive OpticsImaging the Universe with Longer Wavelengths:Observations in the Far InfraredRadio TelescopesImaging the Universe with Shorter Wavelengths:Some Aspects of Imaging in the UltravioletX-ray Telescopesγ-ray TelescopesImages of the Earth and Planets:Aerial ArchaeologyImaging EarthImages of PlanetsImages for Entertainment:Persistence of VisionCinematographyTelevisionDetection and Imaging with Sound and Vibrations:The Nature of Sound WavesAnimal EcholocationThe Origin of Echolocation DevicesSonarImaging the Interior of the EarthMedical Imaging:The Discovery of X-raysX-ray GeneratorsRecording a Radiographic ImageComputed Tomography — CT ScansMagnetic Resonance ImagingImaging with UltrasoundImages of Atoms:The Nature of CrystalsThe Phenomenon of DiffractionThe Beginning of X-ray CrystallographyX-rays for Diffraction ExperimentsThe Phase Problem in CrystallographyDetermining Crystal Structures; Electron-density ImagesThe Scanning Tunnelling MicroscopeImages of Particles:The Structure of an AtomAtom-smashing MachinesMany More ParticlesDirect Imaging of Particle TracksReadership: Aimed at undergraduate level and suitable for both students and the general public.