Books
Lev Manovich

AI Aesthetics

    Ivanhas quoted3 years ago
    1) Selecting content from larger collections: search, discovery, curation, recommendations and filtering.
    Mert Akbuluthas quotedlast year
    1) Selecting content from larger collections: search, discovery, curation, recommendations and filtering. (Asrar, 2016).
    2) Targeting content (e.g., one-to-one marketing, behavioral targeting, and market segmentation).
    3) Assistance in creation/editing of new content. (If we are to think of AI as intelligent in the biological sense, we can cal this “participation” in content creation.)
    4) Fully autonomous creation (e.g., AI composing music tracks in a particular style, writing business and sports news articles (Kafka, 2016), creating visualizations from given datasets, designing websites, generating email responses, etc.)
    Mert Akbuluthas quotedlast year
    5. Huawei ran a photo contest where submitted photos were judged by AI: “Trained using 4,000,000 images taken by professional photographers and picture editors, the AI will then give each photo a personalized AI score based on parameters such as focus, jitter, deflection, color, and composition” (Hillen, 2018)
    Mert Akbuluthas quotedlast year
    Harold Cohen. Amsterdam Suite C. Lithograph from a drawing generated by a computer program written by Cohen. 1977
    Ada Gogohas quoted2 years ago
    AI now plays an equally important role in our cultural lives and behaviors, increasingly automating the processes of aesthetic creation and aesthetic choices.
    Svyatoslav Yushinhas quoted2 years ago
    Let’s look at computer science publications that quantitatively analyze Instagram as an example. To locate only quantitative papers, I usually add the word “dataset” to the name of the social network I want to find research about, and then search for this combination of words on Google Scholar. The search for “Instagram dataset” conducted on July 15, 2017 returned 9,210 journal articles and conference papers.
    Svyatoslav Yushinhas quoted2 years ago
    This is one of the key issues surrounding cultural uses of AI. Are the results of machine learning interpretable, or are they only a black box which is efficient in production but useless for human understanding of the domain? Will the expanding use of machine learning to create new cultural objects make explicit the patterns in many existing cultural fields that we may not be aware of? And if it does, will it be in a form that will be understandable for people without degrees in computer science? Will the companies deploying machine learning to generate movies, ads, designs, images, music, urban designs, etc. expose what their systems have learned?
    Svyatoslav Yushinhas quoted2 years ago
    Today AI gives us the option to automate our aesthetic choices (via recommendation engines), assists in certain areas of aesthetic production such as consumer photography, and automates other cultural experiences (for example, automatically selecting ads we see online). But in the future, it will play a larger part in professional cultural production. Its use of helping to design fashion items, logos, music, TV commercials, and works in other areas of culture is already growing. But currently, human experts usually make the final decisions or do actual production based on ideas and media generated by AI.
    The well-known example of Game of Thrones (American fantasy television drama series that premiered in 2011) is a case in point. The computer suggested plot ideas, but the actual writing and the show’s development was done by humans. We can only talk about fully AI-driven culture where AI will be allowed to create the finished design and media from beginning to end. In this future, humans will not be deciding if these products should be shown to audiences; they will just trust that AI systems know best — the way AI is already fully entrusted to choose when and where to show particular ads, as well as who should see them.
    Svyatoslav Yushinhas quoted2 years ago
    the role played by cultural AI is probably not the most significant yet — but it is likely to grow in the future for at least two reasons. First, billions of people who still don’t have access to internet and smartphones will get this access and start using the same AI-driven recommendation engines, automated aesthetic editing of captured media, selfie-beautifying apps, and so on. Second, the automation of aesthetic decisions we have seen so far is still at an early stage, with many more things to come. For example, right now people take photos themselves, cameras apply some aesthetic adjustments at the time of capture, and then a person may use editing software to do further adjustments. But it is easy to imagine a future scenario where cameras will themselves choose what and when to capture to give us the most satisfying photos that fit certain concepts and aesthetic ideals. In fact, the Google Clips video camera released in January 2018 is already doing this. The camera is fully AI-based. It uses computer vision to recognize people and pets and certain emotional expressions, and was trained by professional photographers to make “good” videos with proper composition, interesting actions, etc. (Lovejoy, 2018).
    Svyatoslav Yushinhas quoted2 years ago
    Of course, a number of other trends also influence aesthetic diversity in contemporary culture besides computational technologies. The rise of the world wide web and social networks, growth of international travel, globalization of consumer economies and advertising, zero cost telecommunication, growth of foreign student enrollment, growth of remote work, and the rise of Japan, followed by Korea and then China, as exporters of cultural products and images are just some examples among many other developments all playing a role. On the one hand, they are making the world into a single global village — or if you like, a single cultural marketplace, where certain im-ages, ideas, values, narratives, products, and styles are marketed to everybody and available everywhere, and this may decrease diversity. On the other hand, the same trends may also be increasing diversity because local cultural DNAs become available globally.
    b3993807707has quoted2 years ago
    ural production may use AI based on a system of ex
    b3993807707has quoted2 years ago
    w compare these abstract algorithmic classics with current attempts to automatically synthesi
    b3993807707has quoted2 years ago
    We are not there yet. For example, in 2016 IBM Watson created the first “AI-made movie trailer” for the feature film Morgan (Mix, 2016). However, AI only chose various shots from the completed movie that it “thought” were suitable to include in the trailer, and a human editor did the final selection and editing. In another example, to create a system that would automatically suggest suitable answers to the emails users receive, Google workers first created a dataset of all such answers manually. AI chooses what answers to suggest in each possible case, but it does not generate them. (The head of Google’s AI in New York explained that even one bad mistake in such a scenario could generate bad press for the company, so Google could not risk having AI come up with suggested answer sentences and phrases on its own.)
    b3993807707has quoted2 years ago
    We can only talk about fully AI-driven culture where AI will be allowed to create the finished design and media from beginning to end. In this future, humans will not be deciding if these products should be shown to audiences; they will just trust that AI systems know best — the way AI is already fully entrusted to choose when and where to show particular ads, as well as who should see them.
    Svyatoslav Yushinhas quoted2 years ago
    Why are some intelligent tasks that computers can accomplish seen as “real” AI, and others are not? Observers and historians of the AI field talk about “AI effect.” It means that “when we know how a machine does something ‘intelligent,’ it ceases to be regarded as intelligent” (Promise of AI Not So Bright, 2006).
    Svyatoslav Yushinhas quoted2 years ago
    The original vision of AI was about automation of cognition. Today, AI also plays a crucial role in culture, increasingly influencing our choices, behaviors, and imaginations. For example, it is used to recommend photos, videos, music, and other media. AI is also used to suggest people we should follow on social networks, to automatically beautify selfies and edit user photos to fit the norms of “good” photography, and to generate and control characters in computer games.
    Svyatoslav Yushinhas quoted2 years ago
    While algorithms have been employed in artistic creation by artists since the 1960s, today industrial scale “cultural AI” is built into devices and services used by billions of people. Instead of being an instrument of a single artistic imagination,AI has become a mechanism for influencing the imaginations of billions. Gathered and aggregated data about the cultural behaviors of multitudes is used to model our “aesthetic self,” predicting our future aesthetic decisions and tastes — and potentially guiding us towards choices preferred by the majority.
    Svyatoslav Yushinhas quoted2 years ago
    Writing in 1842, Ada Lovelace imagines that in the future, Babbage’s Analytical Engine (general, purpose programmable computer) will be able to create complex music. In the 2017 novel by famous Russian writer Victor Pelevin, set in the late 21st century, the narrator is an algorithm solving crimes and writing novels about them. Today we exist somewhere between these two visions of cultural AI (Artificial Intelligence). Algorithms are frequently used to write music, but they don’t really “understand” the human world and human meanings. Whether the latter will ever happen is unclear.
    Svyatoslav Yushinhas quoted2 years ago
    “So who am I exactly? With known caveats, I am what people of the past have called ‘artificial intelligence.’”
    — Victor Pelevin, iPhuck 10, 2017
    Никита Карповhas quoted2 years ago
    interpretable, or are they only a black box which is efficient in production but useless for human understanding of the domain
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