The population of Wales is the product of successive waves of immigration. During the industrial revolution many diverse groups were attracted into Wales by the economic opportunities it offered – notably Irish people, black and minority ethnic sailors from many parts of the world, and people from continental Europe. More recently, there has been immigration from the New Commonwealth as well as refugees from wars and oppression in several parts of the world. This volume engages with this experience by offering perspectives from historians, sociologists, cultural analysts and social policy experts. It provides analyses of the changing patterns of immigration and their reception including hostile and violent acts. It also considers the way in which Welsh attitudes to minorities have been shaped in the past through the activity of missionaries in the British Empire, and how these have permeated literary perceptions of Wales. In the contemporary world, this diverse population has implications for social policy which are explored in a number of contexts, including in rural Wales. The achievements of minorities in sport and in building a multi-racial community in Butetown, for instance, which is now writing its own history, are recognised. The first edition of this book was widely welcomed as the essential work on the topic; over a decade later much has changed and the volume responds with several new chapters and extensive revisions that engage the impact of devolution on policy in Wales.