Erving Goffman

goffman-selfeverydaylife

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    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    F i e l d e t h n o g r a p h e r s se em q u i t e g e n e r a l l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t e v e n s h a m a n s who know t h a t t h e y add fraud n e v e r t h e l e s s a l s o b e l i e v e in t h e i r p o w e r s , an d e s p e c i a l l y in t h o s e o f o t h e r s h a m a n s : t h e y c o n s u l t them whet! t h e y t h e m s e l v e s or theLr c h i l d r e n a r e i l l
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    an d e s p e c i a l l y in e x h i b i t i o n s o f p o w e r . T h i s s l e i g h t - o f - h a n d i s s o m e t i m e s d e l i b e r a t e ; in man y c a s e s a w a r e n e s s i s p e r h a p s no t d e e p e r chan th e f o r e c o n s c i o u s
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    A nother m ix tu re o f c y n i c i s m a n d b e l i e f i s s u g g e s t e d in K ro e b e r ’s d i s c u s s i o n o f s h a m a n i s m : N e x t , t h e r e i s th e o l d q u e s t io n o f d e c e p t i o n « P r o b a b l y m o s t s h a m a n s or m e d i c i n e men, th e world o v er , h e l p a l o n g with s l e i g h t - o f - h a n d in c u r i n g
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    e v e r y o n e i s a l w a y s a n d e v e r y w h e r e , more o r l e s s c o n s c i o u s l y , p l a y i n g a r o l e . . . I t i s in t h e s e r o l e s t h a t w e k n o w e a c h o t h e r ; it i s in t h e s e r o l e s t h a t w e k n o w o u r s e l v e s
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    I h a v e s u g g e s t e d two e x t r e m e s : an i n d i v i d u a l may be ta ken in by h i s own a c t or be c y n i c a l a b o u t i t. T h e s e e x t r e m e s are s o m e t h i n g a l i t t l e more th a n j u s t th e e n d s of a c o n tin u u m . E a c h p r o v i d e s th e in d i v i d u a l with a p o s i t i o n w hich h a s i t s own p a r t i c u l a r s e c u r i t i e s and d e f e n c e s , s o th e r e will be a te n d e n c y for t h o s e who h ave t r a v e l l e d c l o s e to o n e of t h e s e p o l e s to comp l e t e the v o y a g e
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    A c y n i c a l in d iv id u a l may d e l u d e h i s a u d i e n c e for what he c o n s i d e r s t o be th e ir own good, or for th e good o f th e com m unity, e t c . F o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s of t h i s we n e e d not a p p e a l to s a d l y e n l i g h t e n e d show m en s u c h a s M a rc u s A u r e l i u s or H sun T z u .
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    When th e in d iv i d u a l h a s no b e l ie f in h i s own a c t a n d no u l t i m a t e c o n c e r n with t h e b e l i e f s o f h i s a u d i e n c e , we may c a ll him c y n i c a l , r e s e r v i n g t h e term s i n c e r e for i n d i v i d u a l s who b e l i e v e in th e im p r e s s i o n f o s t e r e d by t h e i r own p e rfo rm a n c e .
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    d r a m a tu rg ic a l p r o b l e m s of p r e s e n t i n g th e a c t i v i t y b efo re o th e r s
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    T o s u m m a r iz e , th e n , I a s s u m e th a t when an in d iv i d u a l a p p e a r s b ef o r e o t h e r s h e will h a v e many m o ti v e s for tr y in g to co n tro l t h e i m p r e s s i o n th e y r e c e i v e o f the s i t u a t i o n .
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    T h e r e s e e m s t o be no g r o uping which d o e s n o t h a v e a r e a d y s u p p ly o f t h e s e g a m e s , r e v e r i e s , a n d c a u t i o n a r y t a l e s , to be u s e d a s a s o u r c e of humour, a c a t h a r s i s for a n x i e t i e s , and a s a n c t i o n for in d u c i n g i n d i v i d u a l s to be m o d e s t in th e i r c l a i m s a n d r e a s o n a b l e in th e ir p r o j e c t e d e x p e c t a t i o n
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    P r a c t i c a l j o k e s a n d s o c i a l g a m e s a r e p l a y e d in w h ich e m b a r r a s s m e n t s w hich a r e to b e ta k e n u n s e r i o u s l y a r e p u r p o s e l y e n g i n e e r e d . 1
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    P r a c t i c a l j o k e s a n d s o c i a l g a m e s a r e p l a y e d in w h ich e m b a r r a s s m e n t s w hich a r e to b e ta k e n u n s e r i o u s l y a r e p u r p o s e l y e n g i n e e r e d . 1
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    We find t h a t p r e v e n t i v e p r a c t i c e s a r e c o n s t a n t l y emp lo y e d to u.void t h e s e e m b a r r a s s m e n t s a n d th a t c o r r e c t i v e p r a c t i c e s a r e c o n s t a n t l y e m p lo y e d to c o m p e n s a t e for d i s c r e d i t i n g o c c u r r e n c e s th a t h a v e not b ee n s u c c e s s f u l l y a v o i d e d
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    w hen a n in d iv i d u a l p r o j e c t s a d e f i n i t i o n of th e s i t u a t i o n and th e r e b y m a k e s a n im p l ic i t or e x p l i c i t cla im to be a p e r s o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r kind, h e a u t o m a t i c a l l y e x e r t s a moral dem an d upon t h e o t h e r s , o b l i g i n g th em to v a l u e a n d t r e a t him in t h e m a n n er t h a t p e r s o n s of h i s kind h a v e a right to e x p e c t .
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    G iv e n t h e f a c t t h a t th e i n d iv i d u a l e f f e c t i v e l y p r o j e c t s a d e f in i tio n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n when h e e n t e r s t h e p r e s e n c e of o t h e r s , w e c a n a s s u m e t h a t e v e n t s may o c c u r within t h e in te r a c t i o n w hich c o n t r a d i c t , d i s c r e d i t , o r o t h e r w i s e th row doubt upon t h i s p r o j e c t i o n .
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    A s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a m ong t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s p r o g r e s s e s , a d d i t i o n s a n d m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n t h i s i n i t i a l i n f o r m a ti o n a l s t a t e w ill o f c o u r s e o c c u r , -but i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e s e l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t s be r e l a t e d withouc c o n t r a d i c t i o n to, and e v e n b u ilt up from, t h e i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n s t a k e n by t h e s e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s .
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    T h e i n d i v i d u a l ’s i n i t i a l p r o j e c t i o n c o m m i t s him t o w h a t h e i s p r o p o s i n g to b e a n d r e q u i r e s him to drop a l l p r e t e n c e s of b e i n g o t h e r t h i n g s . ■
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    E a c h p a r t i c i p a n t i s a l l o w e d to e s t a b l i s h t h e t e n t a t i v e o f f i c i a l ru lin g r e g a r d i n g m a t t e r s w h ic h a r e v i t a l to him b a t not i m m e d i a t e l y im p o r ta n t to o th e r s , e . g . , t h e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s a n d j u s t i f i c a t i o n s by w h ich he a c c
    Thomas Tuotihas quoted8 years ago
    R a th e r, e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t i s e x p e c t e d to s u p p r e s s h i s i m m e d ia te h e a r t f e l t f e e l i n g s , c o n v e y in g a v ie w o f th e s i t u a t i o n w h ic h he f
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