In this book, Mabroka al-Werfalli examines the extent and effects of political alienation in Libya. Using a variety of measures, the author highlights links between legitimacy and alienation and underlines certain types of political behaviour commonly associated with political alienation, in an attempt to draw attention to various causes of indifference and violent behaviour associated with political alienation in Libyan society. Al-Werfalli's findings reveal that alienation has led to widespread political apathy and low or non-existent levels of political participation among Libyans. Every year the percentage of eligible Libyans involved in political activities has declined. the Basic Popular Congresses (BPC's) which work as an essential vehicle for political participation within the Libyan political regime, have been treated as immature institutions by the revolutionary leadership, who have remained, in the eys of the people, the only actor of note. As a result, these trends are being increasingly interpreted as signs of the gradual exhaustion of a model for which there is no clear alternative in sight.