South Africa has arguably the most comprehensive and challenging affirmative action policies of any country in the world. But is black economic empowerment achieving its goal of correcting past injustices and opening up opportunities for black South Africans? Or is it in practice more harmful than helpful? In the first comprehensive review of BEE policies since 1994, respected political analyst Anthea Jeffery tackles this question head-on. She examines affirmative action in education and employment, along with the BEE generic codes and BEE in mining, the oil industry, and elsewhere. She also deals with land reform. This book is unique in drawing all the different aspects of BEE together and explaining often complex rules in simple layman’s terms. Jeffery also asks the challenging questions about the pros and cons of BEE that most commentators avoid.