David Crystal

Making Sense

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    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    So a binomial in which one item was shorter, semantically more important, contributed to a regular stress pattern, and had a front vowel would definitely put that item first
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    n dumb is further back. Similarly, the vowel in knife is front and high; the vowel in fork is back and low. Other examples include this or that, cats and dogs, spick and span, ifs and buts, tit for tat, [when all’s] said and done.
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    the first item seems to be more functionally distinctive: teeth cause more damage than nails, cloaks hide daggers, and we can have chips ‘with everything’.
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    tooth and nail, cloak and dagger, and fish and chips,
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    hill and dale, leaps and bounds, ups and downs, above and beyond, rise and fall, and an arm and a leg
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    born and bred, hand to mouth, life and death, rise and shine, kiss and make up, hit and run, smash and grab, old and grey
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    Other subordinate clauses acted like subjects, objects, or complements. And because they were doing the same job as a noun, they were called noun clauses (or, using an adjective that became popular during the nineteenth century, nominal clauses). That handled cases like this:
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    Because the clause is doing the same job as an adverb, grammarians in this approach therefore called it an adverb clause (or adverbial clause).
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    and, but, either, and or
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    Conjunctions such as because, when, and after were consequently called subordinating conjunctions – with subordinators a more succinct alternative. And sentences containing clauses linked by subordinators were called complex sentences.
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    fter Daddy pushed the pram
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    was subordinate clause
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    And sentences containing clauses linked by coordinators were called compound sentences.
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    . Coordinating conjunctions became the most widely used term, though some grammarians, finding this a bit of a mouthful, later opted for coordinators. A clause that followed a coordinator was called a coordinate clause.
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    placing little demand on her memory
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    toe-in-the-water sequences
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    Madam, the agony is somewhat abated
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    taken grammatical terminology (and jigsaws?) in his stride
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    with great force
    jixogo4041has quoted3 years ago
    . Some linguists adopted adverbial – actually a medieval alternative for adverb, but now used with this broader meaning. Others opted for another old term, used since the sixteenth century (and employed in Chapter 2): adjunct.
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