1940s (Hari and Tillemans,1984). Conductive education is usually carried out within group educational settings with a focus on promoting independence. The fundamental philosophy of this approach is that movement problems are viewed as problems of learning. Therefore, proponents argue a learning process should be used to develop independence to the best of the child’s ability, without emphasizing movement quality. In therapy a major focus is placed on the child’s initiation, practice and participation in daily activities. Simple plinths, ladder-backed chairs and orthoses are the only equipment used in therapy. Like the Bobath approach, one of the difficulties with evaluating conductive education is that it has been adapted by clinicians over time and from person to person and there is considerable variability among clinicians about the extent to which other approaches should be incorporated into therapy. Effectiveness has been evaluated in four systematic reviews (French and Nommensen, 1992; Ludwig et al, 2000; Pedersen, 2000; Darrah et al, 2004). The overall conclusions of these reviews agree that the number of studies to have evaluated the effectiveness of conductive education is too small, and the quality of those that have been completed is too low, to make conclusions about the effectiveness or lack of effectiveness of conductive education.