John Ruskin

John Ruskin

John Ruskin was born on 8 February 1819 at 54 Hunter Street, London, the only child of Margaret and John James Ruskin. His father, a prosperous, self-made man who was a founding partner of Pedro Domecq sherries, collected art and encouraged his son's literary activities, while his mother, a devout evangelical Protestant, early dedicated her son to the service of God and devoutly wished him to become an Anglican bishop. Ruskin, who received his education at home until the age of twelve, rarely associated with other children and had few toys. During his sixth year he accompanied his parents on the first of many annual tours of the Continent. Encouraged by his father, he published his first poem, "On Skiddaw and Derwent Water," at the age of eleven, and four years later his first prose work, an article on the waters of the Rhine.In 1836, the year he matriculated as a gentleman-commoner at Christ Church, Oxford, he wrote a pamphlet defending the painter Turner against the periodical critics, but at the artist's request he did not publish it. While at Oxford (where his mother had accompanied him) Ruskin associated largely with a wealthy and often rowdy set but continued to publish poetry and criticism; and in 1839 he won the Oxford Newdigate Prize for poetry. The next year, however, suspected consumption led him to interrupt his studies and travel, and he did not receive his degree until 1842, when he abandoned the idea of entering the ministry. This same year he began the first volume of Modern Painters after reviewers of the annual Royal Academy exhibition had again savagely treated Turner's works, and in 1846, after making his first trip abroad without his parents, he published the second volume, which discussed his theories of beauty and imagination within the context of figural as well as landscape painting.On 10 April 1848 Ruskin married Euphemia Chalmers Gray, and the next year he published The Seven Lamps of Architecture, after which he and Effie set out for Venice. In 1850 he published The King of the Golden River, which he had written for Effie nine years before, and a volume of poetry, and in the following year, during which Turner died and Ruskin made the acquaintance of the Pre-Raphaelites, the first volume of The Stones of Venice. The final two volumes appeared in 1853, the summer of which saw Millais, Ruskin, and Effie together in Scotland, where the artist painted Ruskin's portrait. The next year his wife left him and had their marriage annulled on grounds of non-consummation, after which she later married Millais. During this difficult year, Ruskin defended the Pre-Raphaelites, became close to Rossetti, and taught at the Working Men's College.In 1855 Ruskin began Academy Notes, his reviews of the annual exhibition, and the following year, in the course of which he became acquainted with the man who later became his close friend, the American Charles Eliot Norton, he published the third and fourth volumes of Modern Painters and The Harbours of England. He continued his immense productivity during the next four years, producing The Elements of Drawing and The Political Economy of Art in 1857, The Elements of Perspective and The Two Paths in 1859, and the fifth volume of Modern Painters and the periodical version of Unto This Last in 1860. During 1858, in the midst of this productive period, Ruskin decisively abandoned the evangelical Protestantism which had so shaped his ideas and attitudes, and he also met Rose La Touche, a young Irish Protestant girl with whom he was later to fall deeply and tragically in love.Throughout the 1860s Ruskin continued writing and lecturing on social and political economy, art, and myth, and during this decade he produced the Fraser's Magazine "Essays on Political Economy" (1863); revised as Munera Pulveris, 1872), Sesame and Lilies (1865), The Grown of Wild Olive (1866), The Ethics of the Dust (1866), Time and Tide, and [2/3] The Queen of the Air (1869), his study of Gr
The Seven Lamps of Architecture, John Ruskin
John Ruskin
Unto This Last and Other Es­says on Po­lit­i­cal Econ­omy
John Ruskin
Stones of Venice
John Ruskin
Stones of Venice
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John Ruskin
The El­e­ments of Draw­ing / In Three Let­ters to Be­gin­ners
John Ruskin
Lec­tures on Ar­chi­tec­ture and Paint­ing / De­liv­ered at Ed­in­burgh in No­vem­ber 1853
John Ruskin
Se­lec­tions From the Works of John Ruskin
John Ruskin
Mod­ern Painters Vol­ume I (of V)
John Ruskin
Modern Painters Volume I (of V)
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John Ruskin
Lec­tures on Art / De­liv­ered be­fore the Uni­ver­sity of Ox­ford in Hi­lary term, 1870
John Ruskin
The Po­etry of Ar­chi­tec­ture / Or, the Ar­chi­tec­ture of the Na­tions of Eu­rope Con­sid­ered in its As­so­ci­a­tion with Nat­ural Scenery and Na­tional Char­ac­ter
John Ruskin
The Stones of Venice, Vol­ume I (of 3)
John Ruskin
The Stones of Venice, Vol­ume III (of 3)
John Ruskin
The King of the Golden River or the Black Broth­ers / A Leg­end of Stiria
John Ruskin
The Ethics of the Dust
John Ruskin
The Ethics of the Dust
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John Ruskin
The Queen of the Air / Be­ing a Study of the Greek Myths of Cloud and Storm
John Ruskin
The Stones of Venice, Vol­ume II (of 3)
John Ruskin
Giotto and his works in Padua / An Ex­plana­tory No­tice of the Se­ries of Wood­cuts Ex­e­cuted for the Arun­del So­ci­ety Af­ter the Fres­coes in the Arena Chapel
John Ruskin
The Plea­sures of Eng­land / Lec­tures given in Ox­ford
John Ruskin
Love's Meinie / Three Lec­tures on Greek and Eng­lish Birds
John Ruskin
On the Old Road, Vol. 2 (of 2) / A Col­lec­tion of Mis­cel­la­neous Es­says and Ar­ti­cles on Art and Lit­er­a­ture
John Ruskin
Morn­ings in Flo­rence
John Ruskin
Mornings in Florence
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